I did test with the latest version and the same issue occurred. I dug a bit deeper into the email and it does look like an issue with email. The html of the embedded image is referencing a content id, but the attached image doesn't have a content id.
I zoomed to where the image should be displayed and I can see it reporting the error that the linked image cannot be displayed. The file may have been moved, renamed, or deleted.
I've reported the issue to the sender.